# Finding Root By Fixed Point Iteration Method In Mathematica

When Aitken's process is combined with the fixed point iteration in Newton's method, the result is called Steffensen's acceleration. Starting with p0, two steps of Newton's method are used to compute \( p_1 = p_0 - \fracf(p_0 )f' (p_0 ) \) and \( p_2 = p_1 - \fracf(p_1 )f' (p_1 ) , \) then Aitken's process is used to compute \( q_0 = p_0 - \frac\left( \Delta p_0 \right)^2\Delta^2 p_0 . \) To continue the iteration set \( q_0 = p_0 \) and repeat the previous steps. This means that we have a fixed-point iteration: \[ p_0 , \qquad p_1 = g(p_0 ), \qquad p_2 = g(p_1 ). \] Then we compute \[ q_0 = p_0 - \frac\left( \Delta p_0 \right)^2\Delta^2 p_0 = p_0 - \frac\left( p_1 - p_0 \right)^2p_2 - 2p_1 +p_0 . \] At this point, we ``restart'' the fixed point iteration with \( p_0 = q_0 , \) e.g., \[ p_3 = q_0 , \qquad p_4 = g(p_3 ), \qquad p_5 = g(p_4 ). \] and compute \[ q_3 = p_3 - \frac\left( \Delta p_3 \right)^2\Delta^2 p_3 = p_3 - \frac\left( p_4 - p_3 \right)^2p_5 - 2p_4 +p_3 . \] If at some point \( \Delta^2 p_n =0 \) (which appears in the denominator), then we stop and select the current value of pn+2 as our approximate answer.Steffensen's acceleration is used to quickly find a solution of the fixed-point equation x = g(x) given an initial approximation p0. It is assumed that both g(x) and its derivative are continuous, \( g' (x) p.

## Finding root by Fixed point iteration method in Mathematica

Newton's method, also called the Newton-Raphson method, is a root-finding algorithm that uses the first few terms of the Taylor series of a function in the vicinity of a suspected root. Newton's method is sometimes also known as Newton's iteration, although in this work the latter term is reserved to the application of Newton's method for computing square roots.

which is the first-order adjustment to the root's position. By letting , calculating a new , and so on, the process can be repeated until it converges to a fixed point (which is precisely a root) using

Applying Newton's method to the roots of any polynomial of degree two or higher yields a rational map of , and the Julia set of this map is a fractal whenever there are three or more distinct roots. Iterating the method for the roots of with starting point gives

Fixed points of functions in the complex plane commonly lead to beautiful fractal structures. For example, the plots above color the value of the fixed point (left figures) and the number of iterations to reach a fixed point (right figures) for cosine (top) and sine (bottom). Newton's method, which essentially involves a fixed point computation in order to find roots, leads to similar fractals in an analogous way.

Similar to the fixed-point iteration method for finding roots of a single equation, the fixed-point iteration method can be extended to nonlinear systems. This is in fact a simple extension to the iterative methods used for solving systems of linear equations. The fixed-point iteration method proceeds by rearranging the nonlinear system such that the equations have the form.

I am trying to get the roots of the function with the modified newton raphson method, but on the second iteration the value for xi+1 blows up to -393, isnt't it supposed to get closer to the expected value of the root? (which is 0.34997). Also I am trying to get the root with an "error" below the "eS" criteria. Pls help

The fixed-point iteration method relies on replacing the expression with the expression . Then, an initial guess for the root is assumed and input as an argument for the function . The output is then the estimate . The process is then iterated until the output . The following is the algorithm for the fixed-point iteration method. Assuming , , and maximum number of iterations :Set , and calculate and compare with . If or if , then stop the procedure, otherwise, repeat.

The Babylonian method for finding roots described in the introduction section is a prime example of the use of this method. If we seek to find the solution for the equation or , then a fixed-point iteration scheme can be implemented by writing this equation in the form:

Consider the function . We wish to find the root of the equation , i.e., . The expression can be rearranged to the fixed-point iteration form and an initial guess can be used. The tolerance is set to 0.001. The following is the Microsoft Excel table showing that the tolerance is achieved after 19 iterations:

The following MATLAB code runs the fixed-point iteration method to find the root of a function with initial guess . The value of the estimate and approximate relative error at each iteration is displayed in the command window. Additionally, two plots are produced to visualize how the iterations and the errors progress. Your function should be written in the form . Then call the fixed point iteration function with fixedpointfun2(@(x) g(x), x0). For example, try fixedpointfun2(@(x) cos(x), 0.1)

Consider the function . To find the root of the equation , the expression can be converted into the fixed-point iteration form as:. Implementing the fixed-point iteration procedure shows that this expression almost never converges but oscillates:

Obviously, unlike the bracketing methods, this open method cannot find a root in a specific interval. The root is a function of the initial guess and the form , but the user has no other way of forcing the root to be within a specific interval. It is very difficult, for example, to use the fixed-point iteration method to find the roots of the expression in the interval .

The objective of the fixed-point iteration method is to find the true value that satisfies . In each iteration we have the estimate . Using the mean value theorem, we can write the following expression:

The following shows the output if we use the built-in fixed-point iteration function for each of , , and . oscillates and so, it will never converge. converges really fast (3 to 4 iterations). converges really slow, taking up to 120 iterations to converge.

I need to solve it by using bisection, false position, newton Raphson and fixed point. I have already solved it by using the three first approaches, however I am stuck in the fixed point. I cannot find a function, such that finding the roots of that function represents the equation and also $f'(\alpha)

If you know that the root is around $0.1$ then$$e^\lambda - 1 \approx \lambda$$so the solution is close to the solution of $$N_0 e^\lambda + \nu = N_1$$Solving it for $\lambda$ yields$$\lambda = \log \fracN_1 - \nuN_0.$$Let's use that as the initial guess.$$\lambda_0 = \log \frac1.564 - 0.4351 \approx 0.121332.$$Recall that we approximated $\frace^\lambda - 1\lambda$ by $1$ to obtain the approximate solution. Now let's bring that term back$$\lambda = \log \left(N_1 - \nu \frace^\lambda - 1\lambda\right) - \logN_0.$$Instead of approximating the term with $1$, let's use the last known approximate value for $\lambda$. That would give the following iterative method:$$\lambda_n+1 = \log \left(N_1 - \nu \frace^\lambda_n - 1\lambda_n\right) - \logN_0.$$Here are the first 10 iterations of the method:$$\beginarraycccn & \lambda_n & \texterror\\ 0 & 1.21332000000000\times 10^-1 & 2.03341\times 10^-2 \\ 1 & 9.66817916349767\times 10^-2 & 4.31614\times 10^-3 \\ 2 & 1.01904141090938\times 10^-1 & 9.06211\times 10^-4 \\ 3 & 1.00807223823552\times 10^-1 & 1.90706\times 10^-4 \\ 4 & 1.01038042978185\times 10^-1 & 4.01133\times 10^-5 \\ 5 & 1.00989491349787\times 10^-1 & 8.43834\times 10^-6 \\ 6 & 1.00999704757899\times 10^-1 & 1.77507\times 10^-6 \\ 7 & 1.00997556283298\times 10^-1 & 3.73402\times 10^-7 \\ 8 & 1.00998008234252\times 10^-1 & 7.85485\times 10^-8 \\ 9 & 1.00997913162376\times 10^-1 & 1.65234\times 10^-8 \\ 10 & 1.00997933161588\times 10^-1 & 3.47584\times 10^-9\endarray.$$The method has $f'(\alpha) \approx 0.210$ near the root (gives $\approx 0.7$ correct digits per iteration).

The other method, based on inverse iterations proposed by Terra Hyde may be obtained if you solve the equation for $e^\lambda$ treating $\lambda$ as independent variable$$e^\lambda = \fracN_1 + \nu \lambdaN_0 + \nu \lambda\\\lambda_n+1 = \log \fracN_1 + \nu \lambda_nN_0 + \nu \lambda_n.$$The method has $f'(\alpha) \approx 0.771$ near the root (gives $\approx 0.11$ correct digits per iteration).

The Newton-Raphson method is one of the most used methods of all root-finding methods. The reason for its success is that it converges very fast in most cases. In addition, it can be extended quite easily to multi-variable equations. To find the root of the equation , the Newton-Raphson method depends on the Taylor Series Expansion of the function around the estimate to find a better estimate :

The following MATLAB code runs the Newton-Raphson method to find the root of a function with derivative and initial guess . The value of the estimate and approximate relative error at each iteration is displayed in the command window. Additionally, two plots are produced to visualize how the iterations and the errors progress. You need to pass the function f(x) and its derivative df(x) to the newton-raphson method along with the initial guess as newtonraphson(@(x) f(x), @(x) df(x), x0). For example, try newtonraphson(@(x) sin(5.*x)+cos(2.*x), @(x) 5.*cos(5.*x)-2.*sin(2.*x),0.4)

Depending on the shape of the function and the initial guess, the Newton-Raphson method can get stuck around the locations of oscillations of the function. The tool below visualizes the algorithm when trying to find the root of with an initial guess of . It takes 33 iterations before reaching convergence. 350c69d7ab

- +